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developersguide:vfsfsprotocol [2014/11/17 07:22]
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developersguide:vfsfsprotocol [2015/05/27 04:40] (current)
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 +
 +<div round info>
 +As of git commit **[[http://​git.minix3.org/?​p=minix.git;​a=commit;​h=89c9de7|89c9de7]]**,​ file system services should be written against the **fsdriver** library rather than the protocol as described here. Documentation describing this library will follow shortly. For now, the best resource for information is the combination of this page and the source code of libfsdriver.
 +</​div>​
 +
 +<div round info>
 +All request and reply message fields have been replaced as part of MINIX3.3.0. This document has not yet been updated with that change.
 +</​div>​
 +
 +====== The VFS-FS protocol ======
 +This page provides the official documentation of the VFS-FS protocol of MINIX 3. It describes the protocol used between the VFS server and file servers responsible for mounted file systems. The current version documents the protocol used in Git commit **[[http://​git.minix3.org/?​p=minix.git;​a=commit;​h=71cd1dd|71cd1dd]]**. If you update this document because of changes to MINIX 3, please mention the revision number of the change in the wiki comment.
 +
 +
 +===== General information =====
 +The following information is written mainly for people implementing a file server.
 +
 +==== Request and replies ====
 +All requests made in the VFS-FS protocol come from VFS; the file server only sends replies. Every request must be answered with exactly one reply. The first request from VFS is [[#​req_readsuper|REQ_READSUPER]];​ the last request is [[#​req_unmount|REQ_UNMOUNT]]. The file server must use sef_receive() or sef_receive_status() to receive messages, and should use send() to send replies.
 +
 +The ''<​minix/​vfsif.h>''​ header file provides the definitions for requests, replies and message fields. VFS puts the request code in the type field of the request message. Request codes are always in the range <fs small>​VFS_BASE</​fs>​ to <fs small>​VFS_BASE+NREQS</​fs>,​ exclusive. The file server puts reply code for a request in the type field of the reply message. This is always OK (0) or a negative error code. Any request not implemented by the file server must return <fs small>​EINVAL</​fs>​ or, preferably, <fs small>​ENOSYS</​fs>​.
 +
 +It is possible for the file server to send a request to VFS in response to a request from VFS. Such requests always have a positive nonzero request code, which allows them to be distinguished from replies. VFS will process requests from a FS in reply to its own request, repeatedly, until it receives an actual reply. Support for such nested calls is limited and may break arbitrarily. Currently, VFS allows only the getsysinfo() system call to be invoked this way, for use by ProcFS.
 +
 +==== System interaction ====
 +The driver should use the [[.:​sef|System Event Framework]] (SEF). This framework automatically takes care of interaction with the Reincarnation Server (RS).
 +
 +[[#​req_unmount|REQ_UNMOUNT]] is not a request for termination. Once the file system has been unmounted, the file server should terminate upon receipt of a SIGTERM signal. The file server must not terminate from a SIGTERM as long as the file system is still mounted (this situation can occur upon system shutdown), but should then terminate after processing a subsequent unmount request. In other words, the file server should terminate after it received a SIGTERM signal //and// it has been unmounted. ​ The file system may, but need not support receipt of another [[#​req_readsuper|REQ_READSUPER]] request after being unmounted.
 +
 +Signals may be received by registering a signal handler callback function using the SEF API. Aside from the messages recognized by SEF, the file server will in principle not receive any messages besides requests from VFS.
 +
 +==== General behavior ====
 +If a file server returns an error in response to a request, that request is expected not to have had any effect: the state of the file server is exactly the same before and after the request, and no "​progress"​ has been made in any sense.
 +
 +A notable exception to these are the <fs small>​EENTERMOUNT</​fs>,​ <fs small>​ELEAVEMOUNT</​fs>​ and <fs small>​ESYMLINK</​fs>​ pseudo-errors returned by <fs small>​[[#​req_lookup|REQ_LOOKUP]]</​fs>​. These errors are interpreted by VFS as part of the path lookup process, and are never passed back to the application. No other requests must return these errors.
 +
 +==== Inodes ====
 +VFS requests mainly revolve around inodes. In the VFS-FS protocol, inodes represent open files (of any type, including directories) in the system. Many requests operate on an inode, or on a directory entry (see below). An inode is uniquely identified by its inode number; the file server is responsible for picking inode numbers for its files. Inode number 0 is reserved and may mean "no inode" in some contexts.
 +
 +Upon success, certain requests ([[#​req_readsuper|REQ_READSUPER]],​ [[#​req_lookup|REQ_LOOKUP]],​ [[#​req_create|REQ_CREATE]],​ [[#​req_newnode|REQ_NEWNODE]]) open an inode. Each open request for an inode increases that inode'​s reference count: the number of times the inode is opened by VFS. The [[#​req_putnode|REQ_PUTNODE]] request decreases an open inode'​s reference count, effectively closing the inode when its reference count has reached zero again. A file server should only treat the reference count as an indicator whether the inode is open or not. The actual reference count is meaningless,​ as VFS may delay [[#​req_putnode|REQ_PUTNODE]] requests for as long as the file remains open, or drop all but one references at any time.
 +
 +VFS caches open inodes including some metadata, in the form of vnodes. Cached metadata includes the file's mode, size, owner UID and GID, and special device number. VFS only refers to open inodes in requests. That is, if an inode number is passed as part of a VFS request, the associated inode will have a nonzero reference count in the file server.
 +
 +==== Grants ====
 +Data transferred between VFS (or the user process) and the FS that is not put in the request/​reply messages, is passed using memory grants. An FS can use [[.:​kernelapi#​sys_safecopyfrom|sys_safecopyfrom]] (for READ grants) or [[.:​kernelapi#​sys_safecopyto|sys_safecopyto]] (for WRITE grants) to retrieve or store data. These functions may not succeed; any errors thrown by these functions must be passed back to VFS.
 +
 +For grants used to pass strings from VFS to the file server, the provided grant and string length will include the terminating '​\0'​ character. A notable exception is <fs small>​[[#​req_slink|REQ_SLINK]]</​fs>,​ which provides an unterminated string for the link target; similarly, <fs small>​REQ_RDLINK</​fs>​ is expected to return an unterminated string. In all other cases, file servers may check for a positive nonzero length and the presence of the terminating '​\0'​ character as part of protection against VFS bugs.
 +
 +==== Directory entries ====
 +Several calls manipulate directory entries. A directory entry is always provided in the form of a containing directory inode number, which is guaranteed to be an inode for a directory by VFS, and a last path component, which is a name string passed via a grant (usually in the <fs small>​REQ_GRANT</​fs>​ field of the request message) and a string length (usually in the <fs small>​REQ_PATH_LENGTH</​fs>​ field).
 +
 +Such a name string will never contain a '/'​ slash character, or contain a '​\0'​ character anywhere else but at the end. As indicated above, it is guaranteed to end with a '​\0'​ character, and the passed string length will include that character. The maximum string length, including terminating '​\0'​ character, is limited to <fs small>​PATH_MAX+1</​fs>​ bytes. A file server is free not to accept long names by returning an <fs small>​ENAMETOOLONG</​fs>​ error.
 +
 +VFS generally does not perform any other checks on the last path component of such directory entries, leaving those up to each file server. For example, when VFS requests the creation of a new directory entry, a file server will have to make sure that an entry with that name does not already exist in that directory.
 +
 +==== Protection ====
 +VFS takes care of all checks to make sure that no write requests are sent to a read-only file system. In principle, the file system should never have to return an <fs small>​EROFS</​fs>​ error. A file server may choose to perform this check itself anyway, to protect against VFS bugs.
 +
 +VFS performs all access permission checks, with one exception. During lookups, when an inode is used as a directory in the process of resolving a path, the file server needs to check whether the caller has search access for that directory. A file server may choose to perform other checks itself as well to protect against VFS bugs, but may not always be able to, since not all requests provide the caller'​s user and group ID.
 +
 +==== Device drivers ====
 +Every file server is responsible for raw transfers from ([[#​req_bread|REQ_BREAD]]) and to ([[#​req_bwrite|REQ_BWRITE]]) the device that it has been mounted on. This allows it to keep its cache synchronized. Before such raw transfers are initiated, VFS will send a [[#​req_new_driver|REQ_NEW_DRIVER]] request to the file server to indicate which driver label to use. The root file server has more responsibilities as far as this is concerned; see the next section.
 +
 +MINIX 3 supports restarting crashed device drivers. This includes the block device drivers that file systems are mounted on. File servers may assume a crash-only model: a block device driver either returns a valid response to a request, or communication results in an error. This may be an IPC-level error or an <fs small>​ERESTART</​fs>​ response code. IPC-level errors may be transient, and the file server should retry the original request at least once to see if another IPC-level error is generated. If so, the FS may assume that the device driver has become fully unavailable. An <fs small>​ERESTART</​fs>​ response code indicates the driver has been restarted and the file server should reissue a <fs small>​[[.:​blockprotocol|BDEV_OPEN]]</​fs>​ to the driver before retrying the request. Other non-IPC error codes may be transient. For robustness, the FS may choose to retry an operation a few times before propagating up the error. If at all possible, the file system should use the //libbdev// library to talk to block device drivers, which transparently takes care of all these issues.
 +
 +==== Root file server ====
 +The root file server (serving the "/"​ partition) has a number of additional responsibilities that other file servers do not have. In particular:
 +
 +  * It is responsible for all block devices that have not been mounted.
 +    * It is currently the only file server that has to support <fs small>​[[#​req_flush|REQ_FLUSH]]</​fs>,​ to flush its cache for certain unmounted devices.
 +    * It is also the only file server that will receive <fs small>​[[#​req_new_driver|REQ_NEW_DRIVER]]</​fs>​ requests for devices other than the one it is mounted on.
 +
 +==== Pipes and sockets ====
 +While file systems may support files of type named pipe (S_IFIFO) and of type socket (S_IFSOCK), they need not implement support for pipe communication nor unix domain socket communication. This is all handled by the [[.:​pipefs|Pipe File Server]] (PFS). PFS is also responsible for cloned devices and is consequently the only file server that has to support [[#​req_newnode|REQ_NEWNODE]],​ to create deleted open files.
 +
 +===== Protocol messages =====
 +This specification reflects the protocol as it should be implemented,​ not how it is implemented by MFS. In particular, old and deprecated requests are not and should not be included.
 +
 +The entire VFS-FS protocol is entirely <fs small>​POSIX-</​fs>​oriented. Any deviation from the requirements imposed by <fs small>​POSIX</​fs>​ in this specification is unintentional except when mentioned explicitly. For convenience,​ links to the relevant [[http://​www.opengroup.org|Open Group]] function specifications and file access (<fs small>​ATIME</​fs>​),​ modification (<fs small>​MTIME</​fs>​) and change (<fs small>​CTIME</​fs>​) time-stamp update requirements are provided.
 +
 +The reply codes in this document are advisory and mostly aimed at indicating additional restrictions needed for <fs small>​POSIX</​fs>​ compliance. Not all of them may be applicable to every file server, and a file server may send other error codes where appropriate. Errors resulting from protocol validation checks (e.g. <fs small>​EROFS</​fs>​),​ and sys_safecopy.. errors, are not included.
 +
 +The requests are ordered according to the following rough categorization:​
 +
 +  * [[#​mounting_and_unmounting|Mounting and unmounting]]
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_readsuper|REQ_READSUPER]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_unmount|REQ_UNMOUNT]]</​fs>​
 +  * [[#​inode_open_and_close_functions|Inode open and close functions]]
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_lookup|REQ_LOOKUP]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_create|REQ_CREATE]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_newnode|REQ_NEWNODE]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_putnode|REQ_PUTNODE]]</​fs>​
 +  * [[#​inode_use_functions|Inode use functions]]
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_read|REQ_READ]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_write|REQ_WRITE]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_peek|REQ_PEEK]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_getdents|REQ_GETDENTS]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_inhibread|REQ_INHIBREAD]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_ftrunc|REQ_FTRUNC]]</​fs>​
 +  * [[#​inode_metadata_retrieval_and_manipulation|Inode metadata retrieval and manipulation]]
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_stat|REQ_STAT]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_chown|REQ_CHOWN]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_chmod|REQ_CHMOD]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_utime|REQ_UTIME]]</​fs>​
 +  * [[#​directory_entry_manipulation|Directory entry manipulation]]
 +    * <fs small>​REQ_CREATE</​fs>​ (see above)
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_mkdir|REQ_MKDIR]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_mknod|REQ_MKNOD]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_link|REQ_LINK]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_unlink|REQ_UNLINK]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_rmdir|REQ_RMDIR]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_rename|REQ_RENAME]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_slink|REQ_SLINK]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_rdlink|REQ_RDLINK]]</​fs>​
 +  * [[#​miscellaneous_file_system_operations|Miscellaneous file system operations]]
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_mountpoint|REQ_MOUNTPOINT]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_statvfs|REQ_STATVFS]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_sync|REQ_SYNC]]</​fs>​
 +  * [[#​block_i.2bac8-o_functions|Block I/O functions]]
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_flush|REQ_FLUSH]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_new_driver|REQ_NEW_DRIVER]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_bread|REQ_BREAD]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_bwrite|REQ_BWRITE]]</​fs>​
 +    * <fs small>​[[#​req_bpeek|REQ_BPEEK]]</​fs>​
 +
 +==== Mounting and unmounting ====
 +=== REQ_READSUPER ===
 +Mount the file system.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_GRANT |<​6% ​ >m9_l2 |<​12% ​ >​cp_grant_id_t |memory grant (READ) for the label of the block device driver to use |
 +|REQ_PATH_LEN |m9_s2 |unsigned short |length of the label |
 +|REQ_DEV |m9_l5 |dev_t |device number of block device to mount |
 +|REQ_FLAGS |m9_s3 |int |flag field containing a bitwise combination of the following possible flags:\\ REQ_RDONLY (the file system is mounted read-only),​\\ REQ_ISROOT (the file system is the root file system) |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​RES_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |//upon success:// inode number of the root inode |
 +|RES_MODE |m9_s2 |mode_t |//upon success:// mode of the root inode |
 +|RES_FILE_SIZE_HI |m9_l2 |u32_t |//upon success:// file size of the root inode (upper 32 bits) |
 +|RES_FILE_SIZE_LO |m9_l3 |u32_t |//upon success:// file size of the root inode (lower 32 bits) |
 +|RES_UID |m9_s4 |uid_t |//upon success:// user ID of the root inode |
 +|RES_GID |m9_s1 |gid_t |//upon success:// group ID of the root inode |
 +|RES_FLAGS |m9_s3 |u16_t |//upon success:// result flags, either RES_NOFLAGS or a bitwise combination of:\\ RES_THREADED (the file system supports multiple concurrent requests),​\\ RES_HASPEEK (the file system supports the PEEK and BPEEK calls),\\ RES_64BIT (the file system can handle 64-bit offsets) |
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >EINVAL |label too long |
 +|EINVAL |unable to retrieve endpoint from DS using label |
 +|EINVAL |opening device driver failed |
 +|EINVAL |reading superblock failed |
 +|OK |file system initialized and mounted |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This is the first request sent by VFS to any file server. Upon receiving this request, the file server is expected to initialize itself. This typically includes opening the given device and reading the file system'​s superblock from it; the file server can first obtain the driver endpoint by querying DS with the label name. If the call succeeds, the file server is expected to open the root inode (setting its reference count to 1), and return its details to VFS.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * The label is null-terminated,​ and the given length includes the terminating '​\0'​ character. The maximum label size is always at most <fs small>​DS_MAX_KEYLEN</​fs>,​ but VFS currently uses a hardcoded size of 16 (including '​\0'​).
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_UNMOUNT ===
 +Unmount the file system.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +
 +  * //none//
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +
 +  * //none//
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >OK |file system unmounted |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This is the last request sent by VFS to any file server. It indicates that the file system is to be unmounted, and all of its resources to be cleaned up. This typically includes writing out any dirty data and closing the associated device. Analogous to how <fs small>​REQ_READSUPER</​fs>​ opens the root inode, <fs small>​REQ_UNMOUNT</​fs>​ must close the root inode by decreasing its reference count with 1. VFS assumes that this function succeeds, and will ignore returned error codes.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * After this request is finished, all inodes will have a reference count of zero.
 +  * If the file server supports secondary (VM) caching, it must tell VM to invalidate any blocks associated with the backing device, using ''​vm_clear_cache()''​. Failure to do so could cause corruption due to block aliasing (the same block being accessible through multiple devices). File servers that use libminixfs can use ''​lmfs_invalidate()''​.
 +
 +----
 +
 +==== Inode open and close functions ====
 +=== REQ_LOOKUP ===
 +Resolve a path string to an inode.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_GRANT |<​6% ​ >m9_l2 |<​12% ​ >​cp_grant_id_t |memory grant (READ|WRITE) of the buffer containing the pathname |
 +|REQ_PATH_LEN |m9_s2 |int |length of the remaining part of the string to resolve |
 +|REQ_PATH_SIZE |m9_l5 |size_t |total size of the buffer |
 +|REQ_DIR_INO |m9_l3 |ino_t |inode number of the starting directory |
 +|REQ_ROOT_INO |m9_l4 |ino_t |inode number of the root directory of the caller, or 0 if not on this file system |
 +|REQ_FLAGS |m9_s3 |int |flag field containing a bitwise combination of the following possible flags:\\ PATH_RET_SYMLINK (do not resolve a symlink as the last path component),​\\ PATH_GET_UCRED (copy credentials from VFS instead of using REQ_UID and REQ_GID) |
 +|REQ_UID |m9_s4 |uid_t |user ID of the caller |
 +|REQ_GID |m9_s1 |gid_t |group ID of the caller |
 +|REQ_GRANT2 |m9_l1 |cp_grant_id_t |memory grant (READ) of the //​vfs_ucred_t//​ structure containing supplemental group data |
 +|REQ_UCRED_SIZE |m9_s4 |size_t |total size of //​vfs_ucred_t//​ structure |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​RES_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |//upon success:// resulting file inode number |
 +|RES_MODE |m9_s2 |mode_t |//upon success:// resulting file mode |
 +|RES_FILE_SIZE_HI |m9_l2 |u32_t |//upon success:// resulting file size (upper 32 bits) |
 +|RES_FILE_SIZE_LO |m9_l3 |u32_t |//upon success:// resulting file size (lower 32 bits) |
 +|RES_DEV |m9_l4 |dev_t |//upon success:// resulting file device number |
 +|RES_UID |m9_s4 |uid_t |//upon success:// resulting file user ID |
 +|RES_GID |m9_s1 |gid_t |//upon success:// resulting file group ID |
 +|RES_INODE_NR |m9_l1 |ino_t |//upon EENTERMOUNT://​ inode number of the mountpoint inode |
 +|RES_OFFSET |m9_s2 |int |//upon EENTERMOUNT and ELEAVEMOUNT and ESYMLINK:// new starting offset of string within buffer |
 +|RES_SYMLOOP |m9_s3 |unsigned short |//upon EENTERMOUNT and ELEAVEMOUNT and ESYMLINK:// number of symbolic links followed |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​ENAMETOOLONG |provided path length exceeds what file server can handle |
 +|ENAMETOOLONG |any of the path components is longer than the file system supports |
 +|ENOTDIR |any of the intermediate path components is not a directory |
 +|EACCES |the caller has no search access permission on any of the intermediate directories |
 +|ENFILE |no inodes are available in memory |
 +|ELOOP |more than SYMLOOP_MAX symlinks were encountered during the lookup |
 +|ENAMETOOLONG |resulting path to copy back (including terminating '​\0'​) does not fit in provided buffer |
 +|EENTERMOUNT |a mountpoint was encountered |
 +|ELEAVEMOUNT |"​.."​ is followed from the file system root and the file system root is not the caller root inode |
 +|ESYMLINK |an absolute symlink was encountered |
 +|OK |inode successfully looked up and opened |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This request resolves a path string to an inode. The path is null-terminated;​ the file server may use <fs small>​REQ_PATH_LEN</​fs>​ to determine how many bytes it needs to copy in before starting resolution. This length includes the terminating '​\0'​ character.
 +  * The path resolution starts at the inode given by <fs small>​REQ_DIR_INO</​fs>​. This is always a directory.
 +  * In the path, path components are separated by '/'​ slash characters. Multiple consecutive slash characters are to be treated like one single slash character. A single "​."​ dot path component refers to the current directory resolved so far; two "​.."​ dots refer to the parent directory of the directory resolved so far. Path names ending in a slash have an implied single dot as last path component: they refer to the directory resolved so far. If the given path is empty, the path resolves to the starting inode. A slash at the beginning of the path name has no special meaning, but if the entire path consists of only slashes, this case should be treated as being followed by a dot rather than being empty.
 +  * Whenever an inode is used as a directory in a lookup, the file server must check that the caller has search access permissions on that directory, using the directory'​s mode and the given caller credentials - see below. An inode is used as a directory when it is not the last path component. As indicated, a path component followed by a slash is never the last path component. If an empty path was given, the starting inode is not considered to be accessed as a directory. One exception to the access permission check requirements relates to leaving mountpoints;​ see below.
 +  * If the given root inode (<fs small>​REQ_ROOT_INO</​fs>​) is nonzero, this inode is a directory, and the file server must never allow a path lookup to go below this inode. A lookup on "​.."​ from the root inode uses that root inode as a directory but should resolve to that root inode itself, rather than its parent. If the given root inode is zero, the caller'​s root directory is on another file system and need not be considered.
 +  * Lookups may cross mountpoints. If a lookup on "​.."​ is performed from the file system root (and that inode is not also the caller'​s root directory), the file server must return the <fs small>​ELEAVEMOUNT</​fs>​ pseudo-error to VFS, along with an offset pointing to the first character of the "​.."​ path component or any slash character directly preceding it. If a lookup encounters an inode previously marked as mountpoint (using <fs small>​REQ_MOUNTPOINT</​fs>​),​ the file server must return the <fs small>​EENTERMOUNT</​fs>​ pseudo-error to VFS, along with the inode number of the mountpoint and the offset pointing to the first character after the path component identifying the mountpoint (which is typically either a '/'​ slash character or the terminating '​\0'​ character). It is possible that an inode marked as a mountpoint is encountered even when going up the tree - in this case, too, the inode should indeed be treated as a mountpoint and generate an <fs small>​EENTERMOUNT</​fs>​ error.
 +  * The main exception to the behavior with respect to mountpoints,​ is if the given starting inode is a mountpoint itself. In this case, the first path component after the mountpoint is guaranteed by VFS to be "​.."​. When leaving a mountpoint this way, the file server must skip the search access permissions check on the mountpoint directory, even though it is used as directory. In essence, the properties of the mountpoint directory are entirely hidden.
 +  * <fs small>​REQ_FLAGS</​fs>​ is a bitwise OR'ed mask of flags. If it has the <fs small>​PATH_RET_SYMLINK</​fs>​ flag set, and the last path component of the path is a symbolic link, then the result of the lookup must be that symbolic link inode; otherwise, the lookup must continue with the contents of the symbolic link. All other path components that resolve to symbolic links must be followed, up to <fs small>​SYMLOOP_MAX</​fs>​ times during the lookup. The count of symbolic link resolutions must be returned if the lookup results in <fs small>​EENTERMOUNT</​fs>,​ <fs small>​ELEAVEMOUNT</​fs>​ and <fs small>​ESYMLINK</​fs>​. If a symbolic link is resolved during the lookup process, then the symbolic link followed by any remaining part of the original path must be used as the new remaining path. If the symbolic link is relative (i.e. it does not start with a '/'​ slash), the file server is expected to continue resolving the path. If the symbolic link is absolute (i.e. it starts with a slash), then the file server must return the <fs small>​ESYMLINK</​fs>​ pseudo-error to VFS. In general, when the file server resolves a symbolic link and then proceeds to return an <fs small>​EENTERMOUNT</​fs>,​ <fs small>​ELEAVEMOUNT</​fs>​ or <fs small>​ESYMLINK</​fs>​ pseudo-error,​ it must copy back the remaining part of the changed path back into the given granted buffer. The file server must null-terminate the path, and be careful not to exceed the total <fs small>​REQ_PATH_SIZE</​fs>​ size.
 +  * The caller credentials that are used for directory search access checks, may be passed in either of two ways. If the <fs small>​PATH_GET_UCRED</​fs>​ flag is not set in the <fs small>​REQ_FLAGS</​fs>​ field, then <fs small>​REQ_UID</​fs>​ and <fs small>​REQ_GID</​fs>​ are to be used as the caller'​s user and group ID, respectively. If <fs small>​PATH_GET_UCRED</​fs>​ is set, the file system must instead copy in a //​vfs_ucred_t//​ structure from VFS, from the grant identified by <fs small>​REQ_GRANT2</​fs>​. ​ This supplies the caller'​s user ID, group ID, and a set of supplemental group IDs. The caller is considered to be part of all these groups. The <fs small>​REQ_UCRED_SIZE</​fs>​ field should be used to make sure that VFS and the file server agree on the size of the //​vfs_ucred_t//​ structure. The file server may choose to copy in only the given number of bytes if the size is smaller than it expects. A larger size should be considered to be an error.
 +  * Upon success, the resulting inode is opened (increasing its reference count with 1) and its details are returned to VFS. Upon entering a mountpoint (<fs small>​EENTERMOUNT</​fs>​),​ the inode number of the mountpoint is returned but its reference count remains unchanged.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * If the given root directory inode is nonzero, a file server may choose to continue resolving absolute symlinks itself.
 +  * See [[#​implementing_the_lookup_request|this]] section for a possible approach to implementing most of the requirements above.
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_CREATE ===
 +Create a regular file.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |inode number of the containing directory for the new file |
 +|REQ_MODE |m9_s3 |mode_t |mode for the file |
 +|REQ_UID |m9_s4 |uid_t |user ID for the file |
 +|REQ_GID |m9_s1 |gid_t |group ID for the file |
 +|REQ_GRANT |m9_l2 |cp_grant_id_t |memory grant (READ) for the last path component |
 +|REQ_PATH_LEN |m9_s2 |unsigned short |length of the last path component |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​RES_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |//upon success:// inode number of created file |
 +|RES_MODE |m9_s2 |mode_t |//upon success:// mode of created file |
 +|RES_FILE_SIZE_HI |m9_l2 |u32_t |//upon success:// file size of created file (upper 32 bits) |
 +|RES_FILE_SIZE_LO |m9_l3 |u32_t |//upon success:// file size of created file (lower 32 bits) |
 +|RES_UID |m9_s4 |uid_t |//upon success:// user ID of created file |
 +|RES_GID |m9_s1 |gid_t |//upon success:// group ID of created file |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​ENAMETOOLONG |the last path component is longer than the file system supports |
 +|EEXIST |an entry with that name already exists in the given directory |
 +|ENFILE |no inodes are available |
 +|ENOSPC |no space is left on the device |
 +|EFBIG |the containing directory can not handle any more entries |
 +|ENOENT |the containing directory has been removed |
 +|OK |regular file created and opened |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This request creates a new regular file with the given properties, opens it (setting its reference count to 1), and returns its actual details to VFS.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * The given mode includes the <fs small>​S_IFREG</​fs>​ type.
 +  * The resulting file size will typically be zero.
 +  * This is a write request, and will not be sent to read-only file systems.
 +  * Open Group links: [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​open.html|open]],​ [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​creat.html|creat]]
 +  * <fs small>​POSIX</​fs>​ notes: upon success, the new file's <fs small>​ATIME</​fs>,​ <fs small>​CTIME</​fs>​ and <fs small>​MTIME</​fs>,​ and the containing directory'​s <fs small>​CTIME</​fs>​ and <fs small>​MTIME</​fs>​ are updated.
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_NEWNODE ===
 +Create an open, unlinked file.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_MODE |<​6% ​ >m9_s3 |<​12% ​ >mode_t |mode for the inode |
 +|REQ_DEV |m9_l5 |dev_t |device number for the inode |
 +|REQ_UID |m9_s4 |uid_t |user ID for the inode |
 +|REQ_GID |m9_s1 |gid_t |group ID for the inode |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​RES_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |//upon success:// inode number of the resulting inode |
 +|RES_MODE |m9_s2 |mode_t |//upon success:// mode of the resulting inode |
 +|RES_FILE_SIZE_HI |m9_l2 |u32_t |//upon success:// size of the resulting inode (upper 32 bits) |
 +|RES_FILE_SIZE_LO |m9_l3 |u32_t |//upon success:// size of the resulting inode (lower 32 bits) |
 +|RES_DEV |m9_l4 |dev_t |//upon success:// device number of the resulting inode |
 +|RES_UID |m9_s4 |uid_t |//upon success:// user ID of the resulting inode |
 +|RES_GID |m9_s1 |gid_t |//upon success:// group ID of the resulting inode |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >ENFILE |no inodes are available |
 +|OK |temporary inode created and opened |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This request creates an open but unlinked file. If successful, an inode with a reference count of 1 is returned; this inode exists until its reference count is decreased to zero again. Currently, only the pipe file server will get <fs small>​[[#​req_newnode|REQ_NEWNODE]]</​fs>​ requests.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * The given device number is only relevant for block-special and character-special files.
 +  * The resulting file size will typically be zero.
 +  * Only PipeFS will get this request.
 +  * This is a write request, and would in principle not be sent to read-only file systems.
 +  * <fs small>​POSIX</​fs>​ notes: upon success, the resulting file's <fs small>​ATIME</​fs>,​ <fs small>​MTIME</​fs>​ and <fs small>​CTIME</​fs>​ are updated.
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_PUTNODE ===
 +Decrease an open file's reference count.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |inode number |
 +|REQ_COUNT |m9_l2 |int |number of references to drop |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +
 +  * //none//
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >OK |reference count decreased |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This request tells the file server to decrease the reference count of an inode, closing the file if the reference count reaches zero. VFS assumes that this function succeeds, and will ignore returned error codes.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * VFS will always decrease the count by at least one, and at most the total count.
 +  * VFS may delay putnode requests for as long as the file remains open.
 +
 +----
 +
 +==== Inode use functions ====
 +=== REQ_READ ===
 +Read from a file.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |inode number |
 +|REQ_GRANT |m9_l2 |cp_grant_id_t |memory grant (WRITE) to store the resulting data in |
 +|REQ_SEEK_POS_HI |m9_l3 |u32_t |seek position into the open file (upper 32 bits) |
 +|REQ_SEEK_POS_LO |m9_l4 |u32_t |seek position into the open file (lower 32 bits) |
 +|REQ_NBYTES |m9_l5 |size_t |number of bytes to read |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​RES_SEEK_POS_HI |<​6% ​ >m9_l3 |<​12% ​ >u32_t |//upon success:// resulting file position (upper 32 bits) |
 +|RES_SEEK_POS_LO |m9_l4 |u32_t |//upon success:// resulting file position (lower 32 bits) |
 +|RES_NBYTES |m9_l5 |size_t |//upon success:// number of bytes read |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >OK |results successfully (partially) read, or EOF reached |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This call should store as many bytes as can fit and do not exceed the end of file into the given buffer, starting from the given seek position. The seek position should be advanced accordingly. If the given position points at or beyond the end of file, zero bytes (EOF) should be returned successfully,​ and the position must not be advanced further.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * This call is not used for block or character special files.
 +  * The number of bytes to read is always positive and nonzero.
 +  * Open Group link: [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​read.html|read]]
 +  * <fs small>​POSIX</​fs>​ notes: upon success, file's <fs small>​ATIME</​fs>​ is updated.
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_WRITE ===
 +Write to a file.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |inode number |
 +|REQ_GRANT |m9_l2 |cp_grant_id_t |memory grant (READ) containing the data to write |
 +|REQ_SEEK_POS_HI |m9_l3 |u32_t |seek position into the open file (upper 32 bits) |
 +|REQ_SEEK_POS_LO |m9_l4 |u32_t |seek position into the open file (lower 32 bits) |
 +|REQ_NBYTES |m9_l5 |size_t |number of bytes to write |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​RES_SEEK_POS_HI |<​6% ​ >m9_l3 |<​12% ​ >u32_t |//upon success:// resulting file position (upper 32 bits) |
 +|RES_SEEK_POS_LO |m9_l4 |u32_t |//upon success:// resulting file position (lower 32 bits) |
 +|RES_NBYTES |m9_l5 |size_t |//upon success:// number of bytes written |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >ENOSPC |no space is left on the device |
 +|EFBIG |the write would make the resulting file size too big |
 +|OK |results successfully written |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This call call should write all bytes to the given seek position of the file, possibly extending the file size. If the position is already beyond the end of the file, the gap between the current end of file and the new data should be filled with zeroes (using file holes if supported).
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * This call is not used for block or character special files.
 +  * The number of bytes to write is always positive and nonzero.
 +  * This is a write request, and will not be sent to read-only file systems.
 +  * Open Group link: [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​write.html|write]]
 +  * <fs small>​POSIX</​fs>​ notes: upon success, the file's <fs small>​CTIME</​fs>​ and <fs small>​MTIME</​fs>​ are updated.
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_PEEK ===
 +Request filesystem to retrieve the requested inode data.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |inode number |
 +|REQ_SEEK_POS_HI |m9_l3 |u32_t |seek position into the open file (upper 32 bits) |
 +|REQ_SEEK_POS_LO |m9_l4 |u32_t |seek position into the open file (lower 32 bits) |
 +|REQ_NBYTES |m9_l5 |size_t |number of bytes to read |
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +
 +  * //none//
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >OK |peek done, see REQ_NBYTES reply to see how many were available, filesystem cache metadata |
 +|ENOSYS |filesystem does not implement REQ_PEEK and mmap() call of files opened on this FS should fail |
 +
 +**Description**
 +    * This call operates just like <fs small>​[[#​req_read|REQ_READ]]</​fs>,​ but the results are not copied anywhere except for to the in-filesystem cache. It is to support a to-be-merged mmap implementation in which filesystem cache blocks are annotated with inode number/​offset information that VM can then use to share pages of with processes.
 +    * The (future) mmap implementation makes one important assumption based on the result of REQ_PEEK. If it returns ENOSYS, mmap() can not work as relies on REQ_PEEK to make the blocks visible to VM. mmap() will fail gracefully when it is called on FD's that represent open inodes on this FS. More significantly,​ if REQ_PEEK does not return ENOSYS, it is assumed that REQ_PEEK also informs the cache code of inode metadata.
 +    * Therefore, filesystems must do both (implement REQ_PEEK and inform the cache code of inode metadata), or make REQ_PEEK always return ENOSYS. Otherwise the mmap() may succeed but page accesses will fail, causing disasters in general and most of all when exec() uses mmap().
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_GETDENTS ===
 +Retrieve directory entries.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |inode number of the directory |
 +|REQ_GRANT |m9_l2 |cp_grant_id_t |memory grant (WRITE) to store resulting struct dirent entries and names in |
 +|REQ_MEM_SIZE |m9_l5 |size_t |size of given memory grant |
 +|REQ_SEEK_POS_HI |m9_l3 |u32_t |seek position into the open file (upper 32 bits) |
 +|REQ_SEEK_POS_LO |m9_l4 |u32_t |seek position into the open file (lower 32 bits) |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​RES_SEEK_POS_HI |<​6% ​ >m9_l3 |<​12% ​ >u32_t |//upon success:// new seek position into the file (upper 32 bits) |
 +|RES_SEEK_POS_LO |m9_l4 |u32_t |//upon success:// new seek position into the file (lower 32 bits) |
 +|RES_NBYTES |m9_l5 |size_t |//upon success:// the amount of resulting bytes stored, with 0 for EOF |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >ENOENT |the given file position is not aligned to the internal data structures (file system specific) |
 +|EINVAL |the given buffer is too small to store even one entry (including padding) |
 +|OK |stored zero or more entries in the user's buffer |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This call should store as many entries as can fit and are still present into the given buffer, starting from the entry identified by the given seek position. The seek position should be advanced accordingly. If the given position points beyond the last entry, zero entries should be returned successfully,​ and the position must not be advanced further.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * What the position represents is entirely up to the FS. it could just represent a counter, in which case <fs small>​ENOENT</​fs>​ will never have to be thrown. While seeks to unaligned positions are not allowed, seeks beyond the directory end should just be taken as EOF.
 +  * Each stored entry is of type ''​struct dirent'',​ with member ''​d_name''​ containing the null-terminated name of the directory entry and extra padding to make the following ''​struct dirent''​ 32-bit aligned.
 +  * Each dirent'​s ''​d_off''​ indicates the (file-system specific) position of that entry, and ''​d_reclen''​ represents the total size of the returned ''​struct dirent''​ including name and padding.
 +  * Open Group link (closest match): [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​readdir.html|readdir]]
 +  * <fs small>​POSIX</​fs>​ notes: upon success, the <fs small>​ATIME</​fs>​ of the directory is updated.
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_FTRUNC ===
 +Set size, or free space, of an open file.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |inode number |
 +|REQ_TRC_START_HI |m9_l2 |u32_t |new file size or starting position (inclusive) of region to free (upper 32 bits) |
 +|REQ_TRC_START_LO |m9_l3 |u32_t |new file size or starting position (inclusive) of region to free (lower 32 bits) |
 +|REQ_TRC_END_HI |m9_l4 |u32_t |zero or ending position (exclusive) of region to free (upper 32 bits) |
 +|REQ_TRC_END_LO |m9_l5 |u32_t |zero or ending position (exclusive) of region to free (lower 32 bits) |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +
 +  * //none//
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >EFBIG |the resulting file would be too big |
 +|OK |file size changed and/or holes created |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * The meaning of this request depends on whether the <fs small>​REQ_TRC_END</​fs>​ value is zero or not. If it is zero, the size of the given file has to be adjusted, truncating or expanding the file to the size passed in <fs small>​REQ_TRC_START</​fs>​. Expanding means filling with zeroes, using file holes if supported. If <fs small>​REQ_TRC_END</​fs>​ is not zero, then the region within the file from <fs small>​REQ_TRC_START</​fs>​ to <fs small>​REQ_TRC_END</​fs>​ is to be freed, using file holes if possible. File servers that do not support file holes should zerofill the given region, providing the same net effect to the caller. In any case, freeing space alone must not change the file size.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * VFS guarantees that this call is issued only on regular files.
 +  * VFS guarantees that if <fs small>​REQ_TRC_END</​fs>​ is nonzero, it is greater than <fs small>​REQ_TRC_START</​fs>,​ and no greater than the file size.
 +  * Regions for freeing space are not aligned on block boundaries. On block-oriented file systems that do support file holes, the file server may still have to zero part of the first and last block that the region covers partially.
 +  * This is a write request, and will not be sent to read-only file systems.
 +  * Open Group links: [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​ftruncate.html|ftruncate]],​ [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​truncate.html|truncate]]
 +  * <fs small>​POSIX</​fs>​ notes: upon success, the file's <fs small>​CTIME</​fs>​ and <fs small>​MTIME</​fs>​ are updated, even when the file size has not changed.
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_INHIBREAD ===
 +Mark file as target of seek operation.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |inode number |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +
 +  * //none//
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >OK |request processed successfully |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This request may help determine a file system'​s read-ahead behavior. After a seek, the file server may choose not to do aggressive read-ahead along with the next read call, because it is likely that another seek will follow after (for applications following a seek-read-seek-read pattern). The next read call may enable read-ahead for the read after that (seek-read-read) again.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * This scheme assumes only one reader per file at any time.
 +
 +----
 +
 +==== Inode metadata retrieval and manipulation ====
 +=== REQ_STAT ===
 +Retrieve file status.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |inode number |
 +|REQ_GRANT |m9_l2 |cp_grant_id_t |memory grant (WRITE) to store resulting "​struct stat" in |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +
 +  * //none//
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >OK |result stored in buffer |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * The file server is requested to fill a "​struct stat" structure with details about the given file, and copy it out using the provided grant.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * The st_dev field of the structure should be set to the value provided with the initial <fs small>​[[#​req_readsuper|REQ_READSUPER]]</​fs>​ request.
 +  * Open Group links: [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​fstat.html|fstat]],​ [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​stat.html|stat]]
 +  * Open Group update (2008): [[http://​pubs.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​9699919799/​basedefs/​sys_stat.h.html|sys/​stat.h]]
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_CHOWN ===
 +Change file ownership.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |inode number |
 +|REQ_UID |m9_s4 |uid_t |new user ID for the file |
 +|REQ_GID |m9_s1 |gid_t |new group ID for the file |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​RES_MODE |<​6% ​ >m9_s2 |<​12% ​ >mode_t |//upon success:// resulting inode mode |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >OK |ownership changed |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This request changes ownership of the given file to a new user and group ID. The file server is expected to clear the setuid and setgid bits from the file, and send back the resulting mode to VFS for synchronization of the vnode'​s cached mode.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * This is a write request, and will not be sent to read-only file systems.
 +  * Open Group links: [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​fchown.html|fchown]],​ [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​chown.html|chown]]
 +  * <fs small>​POSIX</​fs>​ notes: the <fs small>​CTIME</​fs>​ of the file is updated.
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_CHMOD ===
 +Change file mode.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |inode number |
 +|REQ_MODE |m9_s3 |mode_t |new mode for the file |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​RES_MODE |<​6% ​ >m9_s2 |<​12% ​ >mode_t |//upon success:// resulting inode mode |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >OK |mode changed |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This request changes the access permissions part (but not the type part) of the mode of the given inode. The resulting mode is sent back to VFS.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * The access permissions mask to use on the given mode is 07777 octal, and defined as <fs small>​ALL_MODES</​fs>​ in ''<​minix/​const.h>''​.
 +  * This is a write request, and will not be sent to read-only file systems.
 +  * Open Group links: [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​fchmod.html|fchmod]],​ [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​chmod.html|chmod]]
 +  * <fs small>​POSIX</​fs>​ notes: the <fs small>​CTIME</​fs>​ of the file is updated.
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_UTIME ===
 +Set file times.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |inode number |
 +|REQ_ACTIME |m9_l2 |time_t |new access time, in seconds since Epoch |
 +|REQ_MODTIME |m9_l3 |time_t |new modification time, in seconds since Epoch |
 +|REQ_ACNSEC |m9_l4 |long |new access nanoseconds,​ or special value UTIME_OMIT or UTIME_NOW |
 +|REQ_MODNSEC |m9_l5 |long |new modification nanoseconds,​ or special value UTIME_OMIT or UTIME_NOW |
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +
 +  * //none//
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >OK |custom file times set |
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * The purpose of this request is to set a custom access time stamp (<fs small>​ATIME</​fs>​),​ and modification time stamp (<fs small>​MTIME</​fs>​) on a file. Time stamps are expressed in seconds and nanoseconds,​ like the two members of ''​struct timespec''​. For each of the two time stamps, the special value <fs small>​UTIME_OMIT</​fs>​ (defined in ''<​sys/​stat.h>''​) asks to avoid modification of the data stored in the file system; and the special value <fs small>​UTIME_NOW</​fs>​ (also defined in ''<​sys/​stat.h>''​) asks to set the time stamp to the current time.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * This is a write request, and will not be sent to read-only file systems.
 +  * If <fs small>​UTIME_NOW</​fs>​ is passed, the count of seconds passed in the corresponding time_t value is set by VFS to the current time.
 +  * <fs small>​POSIX</​fs>​ requires rounding of time stamps to be done toward zero; so discard nanoseconds if the file system does not support them; this also works for <fs small>​UTIME_NOW</​fs>​.
 +  * Open Group link: [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​utime.html|utime]] and [[http://​pubs.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​basedefs/​time.h.html|time.h]]
 +  * Open Group update (2008): [[http://​pubs.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​9699919799/​functions/​futimens.html|futimens and utimensat]] and  [[http://​pubs.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​9699919799/​basedefs/​sys_stat.h.html|sys/​stat.h]]
 +  * <fs small>​POSIX</​fs>​ notes: the <fs small>​CTIME</​fs>​ of the file is also updated.
 +
 +----
 +
 +==== Directory entry manipulation ====
 +=== REQ_MKDIR ===
 +Create a directory.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |inode number of the containing directory for the new file |
 +|REQ_MODE |m9_s3 |mode_t |mode for the directory |
 +|REQ_UID |m9_s4 |uid_t |user ID for the directory |
 +|REQ_GID |m9_s1 |gid_t |group ID for the directory |
 +|REQ_GRANT |m9_l2 |cp_grant_id_t |memory grant (READ) for the last path component |
 +|REQ_PATH_LEN |m9_s2 |unsigned short |length of the last path component |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +
 +  * //none//
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​ENAMETOOLONG |the last path component is longer than the file system supports |
 +|EEXIST |a directory entry with that name already exists |
 +|ENFILE |no inodes are available |
 +|ENOSPC |no space is left on the device |
 +|EFBIG |the containing directory can not handle any more entries |
 +|EMLINK |the containing directory has the maximum number of links already |
 +|ENOENT |the containing directory has been removed |
 +|OK |directory created |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This request creates a new directory with the given properties.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * The given mode includes the <fs small>​S_IFDIR</​fs>​ type.
 +  * This is a write request, and will not be sent to read-only file systems.
 +  * Open Group link: [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​mkdir.html|mkdir]]
 +  * <fs small>​POSIX</​fs>​ notes: upon success, the new directory'​s <fs small>​ATIME</​fs>,​ <fs small>​CTIME</​fs>​ and <fs small>​MTIME</​fs>,​ and the containing directory'​s <fs small>​CTIME</​fs>​ and <fs small>​MTIME</​fs>​ are updated.
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_MKNOD ===
 +Create a special file.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |inode number of the containing directory for the new file |
 +|REQ_MODE |m9_s3 |mode_t |mode for the file |
 +|REQ_DEV |m9_l5 |dev_t |device number |
 +|REQ_UID |m9_s4 |uid_t |user ID for the file |
 +|REQ_GID |m9_s1 |gid_t |group ID for the file |
 +|REQ_GRANT |m9_l2 |cp_grant_id_t |memory grant (READ) for the last path component |
 +|REQ_PATH_LEN |m9_s2 |unsigned short |length of the last path component |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +
 +  * //none//
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​ENAMETOOLONG |the last path component is longer than the file system supports |
 +|EEXIST |a directory entry with that name already exists |
 +|EINVAL |the given file type is invalid or not supported |
 +|ENFILE |no inodes are available |
 +|ENOSPC |no space is left on the device |
 +|EFBIG |the containing directory can not handle any more entries |
 +|ENOENT |the containing directory has been removed |
 +|OK |special file created |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This request creates a new file with the given properties. The type contained in the given mode is arbitrary, and may even be invalid. Interpretation is up to the file system.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * This is a write request, and will not be sent to read-only file systems.
 +  * Open Group link: [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​mknod.html|mknod]]
 +  * <fs small>​POSIX</​fs>​ notes: upon success, the new file's <fs small>​ATIME</​fs>,​ <fs small>​CTIME</​fs>​ and <fs small>​MTIME</​fs>,​ and the containing directory'​s <fs small>​CTIME</​fs>​ and <fs small>​MTIME</​fs>​ are updated.
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_LINK ===
 +Create a hard link to a file.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >​ino_t ​ |link file inode number |
 +|REQ_DIR_INO |m9_l3 |ino_t |inode number of the containing directory for the new link |
 +|REQ_GRANT |m9_l2 |cp_grant_id_t |memory grant (READ) for the last path component |
 +|REQ_PATH_LEN |m9_s2 |unsigned short |length of the last path component |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +
 +  * //none//
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​ENAMETOOLONG |the last path component is longer than the file system supports |
 +|EEXIST |a directory entry with that name already exists |
 +|EPERM |the linked file is a directory |
 +|EMLINK |the linked inode has the maximum number of links already |
 +|ENOSPC |no space is left on the device |
 +|EFBIG |the containing directory can not handle any more entries |
 +|ENOENT |the containing directory has been removed |
 +|OK |new link created |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This request creates a new directory entry that hardlinks to an existing inode (the file being linked).
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * Linking to directories may, but need not be supported.
 +  * This is a write request, and will not be sent to read-only file systems.
 +  * Open Group link: [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​link.html|link]]
 +  * <fs small>​POSIX</​fs>​ notes: upon success, the <fs small>​CTIME</​fs>​ of the linked file and the <fs small>​CTIME</​fs>​ and <fs small>​MTIME</​fs>​ of the containing directory of the new link are updated.
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_UNLINK ===
 +Unlink a file.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |inode number of the containing directory for the file |
 +|REQ_GRANT |m9_l2 |cp_grant_id_t |memory grant (READ) for last path component |
 +|REQ_PATH_LEN |m9_s2 |unsigned short |length of the last path component |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +
 +  * //none//
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​ENAMETOOLONG |the last path component is longer than the file system supports |
 +|ENOENT |no directory entry with that name exists |
 +|EPERM |the given name refers to a directory |
 +|OK |unlinked file |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This request unlinks a file. The inode must not represent a directory.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * Unlinking of directories,​ if supported, is only allowed to be done by the super user; since this request does not provide caller information,​ unlinking of directories can not be supported.
 +  * This is a write request, and will not be sent to read-only file systems.
 +  * Open Group link: [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​unlink.html|unlink]]
 +  * <fs small>​POSIX</​fs>​ notes: upon success, the <fs small>​CTIME</​fs>​ of the unlinked file is updated (if still linked elsewhere or open), and the <fs small>​CTIME</​fs>​ and <fs small>​MTIME</​fs>​ of the containing directory are updated.
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_RMDIR ===
 +Remove an empty directory.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |inode number of the containing directory for the file |
 +|REQ_GRANT |m9_l2 |cp_grant_id_t |memory grant (READ) for last path component |
 +|REQ_PATH_LEN |m9_s2 |unsigned short |length of the last path component |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +
 +  * //none//
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​ENAMETOOLONG |the last path component is longer than the file system supports |
 +|ENOENT |no directory entry with that name exists |
 +|ENOTDIR |the given name does not refer to a directory. |
 +|ENOTEMPTY |the given directory is not empty |
 +|EINVAL |the given directory is "​."​ or "​.."​ |
 +|EBUSY |the given directory is the root directory of the file system |
 +|OK |removed directory |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This request removes a directory. The inode must represent a directory, and that directory must be empty.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * This is a write request, and will not be sent to read-only file systems.
 +  * Open Group link: [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​rmdir.html|rmdir]]
 +  * <fs small>​POSIX</​fs>​ notes: upon success, the <fs small>​CTIME</​fs>​ of the removed directory is updated (if still open), and the <fs small>​CTIME</​fs>​ and <fs small>​MTIME</​fs>​ of the containing directory are updated.
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_RENAME ===
 +Rename a file or directory.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_REN_OLD_DIR |<​6% ​ >m9_l3 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |inode number of containing directory for the old file |
 +|REQ_REN_NEW_DIR |m9_l4 |ino_t |inode number of containing directory for the new file |
 +|REQ_REN_GRANT_OLD |m9_l2 |cp_grant_id_t |memory grant (READ) for the old last path component |
 +|REQ_REN_LEN_OLD |m9_s1 |unsigned short |length of the old last path component |
 +|REQ_REN_GRANT_NEW |m9_l1 |cp_grant_id_t |memory grant (READ) for the new last path component |
 +|REQ_REN_LEN_NEW |m9_s2 |unsigned short |length of the new last path component |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +
 +  * //none//
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​ENAMETOOLONG |the last path component of the old or new file is longer than the file system supports |
 +|ENOENT |the old file does not exist |
 +|OK |the old and new last path component and containing directory are the same |
 +|EBUSY |the old file is a mountpoint directory |
 +|EINVAL |an attempt is made to move a directory to within its own subtree |
 +|EINVAL |the old or new last path component is "​."​ or "​.."​ |
 +|EMLINK |the old file is a directory and the new file doesn'​t exist but the new containing directory has the maximum number of links |
 +|ENOTDIR |the old file is a directory and the new file exists but is not a directory |
 +|EISDIR |the old file is not a directory and the new file exists but is a directory |
 +|ENOTEMPTY |the new file is a directory but is not empty |
 +|EBUSY |the new file is the root directory of the file system |
 +|ENOSPC |no space is left on the device |
 +|EFBIG |the new containing directory can not handle any more entries |
 +|ENOENT |the new containing directory has been removed |
 +|OK |file renamed |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This request renames a file or directory to a new name (last path component) and/or a new containing directory. An attempt to rename a file to itself is a no-op and must return OK. Otherwise, if the new name already exists in the new containing directory, and is of the same directory type as the old file (i.e., directory or not directory), then the call implies an unlink or rmdir on the new last path component first, applying the same restrictions as those calls. Other restrictions apply, generally to maintain file system consistency.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * This is a write request, and will not be sent to read-only file systems.
 +  * Open Group link: [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​rename.html|rename]]
 +  * <fs small>​POSIX</​fs>​ notes: upon success, the <fs small>​CTIME</​fs>​ and <fs small>​MTIME</​fs>​ of the old and new containing directories are updated.
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_SLINK ===
 +Create a symbolic link.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |inode number of the containing directory for the new file |
 +|REQ_GRANT |m9_l2 |cp_grant_id_t |memory grant (READ) for the link name's last path component |
 +|REQ_PATH_LEN |m9_s2 |unsigned short |length of the link name's last path component |
 +|REQ_GRANT3 |m9_l3 |cp_grant_id_t |memory grant (READ) for the link target (not including a trailing '​\0'​) |
 +|REQ_MEM_SIZE |m9_l5 |size_t |length of the link target (not including a trailing '​\0'​) |
 +|REQ_UID |m9_s4 |uid_t |user ID for the new symlink |
 +|REQ_GID |m9_s1 |gid_t |group ID for the new symlink |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +
 +  * //none//
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​ENAMETOOLONG |the last path component is longer than the file system supports |
 +|EEXIST |a directory entry with that name already exists |
 +|ENFILE |no inodes are available |
 +|ENOSPC |no space is left on the device |
 +|EFBIG |the containing directory can not handle any more entries |
 +|ENOENT |the containing directory has been removed |
 +|ENAMETOOLONG |the link target contains '​\0'​ bytes |
 +|OK |symbolic link created |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This request instructs the file server to create a symbolic link entry. The resulting symlink'​s mode is expected to be <fs small>​S_IFLNK</​fs>​|0777 (octal). The symlink should point to the given link target, which is, as far as this request is concerned, a block of arbitrary data.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * The link target is guaranteed to be at least 1 byte and less than <fs small>​SYMLINK_MAX</​fs>​ bytes.
 +  * This is a write request, and will not be sent to read-only file systems.
 +  * Open Group link: [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​symlink.html|symlink]]
 +  * <fs small>​POSIX</​fs>​ notes: upon success, the new symlink'​s <fs small>​ATIME</​fs>,​ <fs small>​CTIME</​fs>​ and <fs small>​MTIME</​fs>,​ and the containing directory'​s <fs small>​CTIME</​fs>​ and <fs small>​MTIME</​fs>​ are updated.
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_RDLINK ===
 +Retrieve symbolic link target.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |inode number |
 +|REQ_GRANT |m9_l2 |cp_grant_id_t |memory grant (WRITE) for buffer to write result to |
 +|REQ_MEM_SIZE |m9_l5 |size_t |size of buffer to write to |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​RES_NBYTES |<​6% ​ >m9_l5 |<​12% ​ >size_t |//upon success:// number of bytes written |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >OK |result stored in buffer |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This call asks the file server to copy the link target of a symbolic link into the given grant. No terminating '​\0'​ character need to be written. If the given buffer is smaller than the link target, a partial result is to be written.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * VFS does not check the permissions of the symbolic link. A symbolic link is always expected to be readable.
 +  * Open Group link: [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​readlink.html|readlink]]
 +
 +----
 +
 +==== Miscellaneous file system operations ====
 +=== REQ_MOUNTPOINT ===
 +Mark an inode as mountpoint.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_INODE_NR |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >ino_t |inode number of file to use as mountpoint |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +
 +  * //none//
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >EBUSY |inode already in use as mountpoint |
 +|ENOTDIR |given inode is not a directory |
 +|OK |inode marked as mountpoint |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This request marks the given inode as being in use as a mountpoint for another file system. VFS will keep the inode open for as long as it is a mountpoint, and send a <fs small>​[[#​req_putnode|REQ_PUTNODE]]</​fs>​ request for it when the other file system is unmounted.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * The mountpoint will not be accessed by inode number for any other requests, besides <fs small>​[[#​req_lookup|REQ_LOOKUP]]</​fs>​ requests continuing up from that mountpoint. In essence, an inode that acts as a mountpoint is entirely hidden from the user's point of view.
 +  * VFS guarantees that the reference count of the given inode is 1 at the time of this request.
 +  * It may be that inodes that are part of the directory hierarchy below the given inode, are still open. The file system must keep this in mind. As far as parent modifications go (such as file times), the ultimate ancestor of such inodes is the mountpoint inode, not the mounted inode that is on another file system, so the file system need not make any exceptions there. However, the mountpoint inode must be hidden during lookups going up from such inodes (see the <fs small>​[[#​req_lookup|REQ_LOOKUP]]</​fs>​ description).
 +  * In principle, not only directories can be mounted; there is support for mounting regular files in both VFS and MFS as well. A file server may choose to support this by only returning <fs small>​ENOTDIR</​fs>​ for inodes that it does not support being a mountpoint.
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_STATVFS ===
 +
 +Retrieve file system statistics.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_GRANT |<​6% ​ >m9_l2 |<​12% ​ >​cp_grant_id_t |memory grant (WRITE) to store resulting "​struct statvfs"​ in |
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +
 +  * //none//
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >OK |result stored in buffer |
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * The file server is requested to fill a "​struct statvfs"​ structure with details about the file system, and copy it out using the provided grant.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * By convention, fields that are unknown or not applicable to the file system, should be set to zero.
 +  * Open Group links: [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​fstatvfs.html|fstatvfs]],​ [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​statvfs.html|statvfs]]
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_SYNC ===
 +Write any unwritten data to disk.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +
 +  * //none//
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +
 +  * //none//
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >OK |request processed successfully |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This request tells the file server to flush its cache to the backing device.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * VFS currently translates fsync() to a sync on the entire file system.
 +  * A root file server must also flush any cached data associated with devices other than the one it is mounted on.
 +  * Open Group links: [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​fsync.html|fsync]],​ [[http://​www.opengroup.org/​onlinepubs/​009695399/​functions/​sync.html|sync]]
 +
 +----
 +
 +==== Block I/O functions ====
 +=== REQ_FLUSH ===
 +Flush and invalidate cached data for an unmounted device.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >REQ_DEV |<​6% ​ >m9_l5 |<​12% ​ >dev_t |device number |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +
 +  * //none//
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|OK |cache flushed and invalidated for this device |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This request tells the root file server to give up the part of its cache used for the given device.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * Only the file server providing the root file system will get this request.
 +  * VFS will not send requests for mounted devices.
 +  * File servers that use secondary (VM) caching must also invalidate blocks for this device in VM, using ''​vm_clear_cache()''​ (or, for libminixfs users, ''​lmfs_invalidate()''​).
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_NEW_DRIVER ===
 +Set a new driver label for a major device.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >REQ_DEV |<​6% ​ >m9_l5 |<​12% ​ >dev_t |device number |
 +|REQ_GRANT |m9_l2 |cp_grant_id_t |memory grant (READ) for the label of the block device driver to use |
 +|REQ_PATH_LEN |m9_s2 |unsigned short |length of the label |
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +
 +  * //none//
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >OK |request processed successfully |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This request tells a file server that that the endpoint of a driver may have changed. The request will be sent in two cases: to inform any file server that its underlying block device driver has restarted, and to inform the root file server that the particular driver has to be used for raw block I/O on the given major number from that point on. The request provides the driver'​s major number, and the label of the driver. This label will always be the same across driver restarts, but may not be the same for block I/O drivers given to the root file server.
 +  * The file server must use DS to look up the corresponding endpoint, and use that endpoint to communicate with the driver from then on. In the case of driver restarts, the file server may have to invoke recovery code (for example, to reopen the underlying block device), if it has not found out about the restart through IPC errors already. In general, the file server must only perform recovery upon getting this request if the resulting endpoint is different from the one it knew about.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * The file server must ignore the minor part of the given device number.
 +  * Only the root file server will receive these requests for devices that it is not mounted on.
 +  * The label is null-terminated,​ and the given length includes the terminating '​\0'​ character. The maximum label size is always at most <fs small>​DS_MAX_KEYLEN</​fs>,​ but VFS currently uses a hardcoded size of 16 (including '​\0'​).
 +
 +----
 +=== REQ_BREAD ===
 +Read from a block device directly.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_DEV2 |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >dev_t |device number |
 +|REQ_GRANT |m9_l2 |cp_grant_id_t |memory grant (WRITE) to store the resulting data in |
 +|REQ_SEEK_POS_HI |m9_l3 |u32_t |read position (upper 32 bits) |
 +|REQ_SEEK_POS_LO |m9_l4 |u32_t |read position (lower 32 bits) |
 +|REQ_NBYTES |m9_l5 |size_t |number of bytes to read |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​RES_SEEK_POS_HI |<​6% ​ >m9_l3 |<​12% ​ >u32_t |//upon success:// resulting position (upper 32 bits) |
 +|RES_SEEK_POS_LO |m9_l4 |u32_t |//upon success:// resulting position (lower 32 bits) |
 +|RES_NBYTES |m9_l5 |size_t |//upon success:// total number of bytes read |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >EIO |I/O error reported by the device driver |
 +|OK |results successfully (partially) read, or EOF reached |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This request reads from a block device directly, as a result of an application reading from a block-special file. File servers will receive such requests for the block device that they are mounted on. This allows them to keep these transfers in sync with their internal cache.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * Requests partially beyond the end of the device may be truncated. Requests fully beyond the end of the device should be treated like EOF (i.e. zero bytes are read).
 +  * The file server providing the root file system will also receive these requests for all block devices that have not been mounted.
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_BWRITE ===
 +Write to a block device directly.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_DEV2 |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >dev_t |device number |
 +|REQ_GRANT |m9_l2 |cp_grant_id_t |memory grant (READ) containing the data to write |
 +|REQ_SEEK_POS_HI |m9_l3 |u32_t |write position (upper 32 bits) |
 +|REQ_SEEK_POS_LO |m9_l4 |u32_t |write position (lower 32 bits) |
 +|REQ_NBYTES |m9_l5 |size_t |number of bytes to write |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​RES_SEEK_POS_HI |<​6% ​ >m9_l3 |<​12% ​ >u32_t |//upon success:// resulting position (upper 32 bits) |
 +|RES_SEEK_POS_LO |m9_l4 |u32_t |//upon success:// resulting position (lower 32 bits) |
 +|RES_NBYTES |m9_l5 |size_t |//upon success:// total number of bytes written |
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >EIO |I/O error reported by the device driver |
 +|OK |results successfully (partially) written, or EOF reached |
 +
 +
 +**Description**
 +
 +  * This request writes from a block device directly, as a result of an application writing to a block-special file. File servers will receive such requests for the block device that they are mounted on. This allows them to keep these transfers in sync with their internal cache. The semantics of writing to a mounted block device are undefined; it is up to the file server to determine how to deal with such requests.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +  * Requests partially beyond the end of the device may be truncated. Requests fully beyond the end of the device should be treated like EOF (i.e. zero bytes are written).
 +  * The file server providing the root file system will also receive these requests for all block devices that have not been mounted.
 +  * While this is a write request, it will also be sent to read-only file systems. This is by design.
 +
 +----
 +
 +=== REQ_BPEEK ===
 +Request filesystem to retrieve the requested block data.
 +
 +**Request fields**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >​REQ_DEV2 |<​6% ​ >m9_l1 |<​12% ​ >dev_t |device number |
 +|REQ_SEEK_POS_HI |m9_l3 |u32_t |seek position into the block device (upper 32 bits) |
 +|REQ_SEEK_POS_LO |m9_l4 |u32_t |seek position into the block device (lower 32 bits) |
 +|REQ_NBYTES |m9_l5 |size_t |number of bytes to read |
 +
 +**Reply fields**
 +
 +  * //none//
 +
 +**Reply codes**
 +|<​90%>​|
 +|<​16% ​ >OK |peek done. all requested blocks have been in the cache. |
 +|ENOSYS |filesystem does not implement REQ_BPEEK and mmap() call of files opened on this FS should fail |
 +
 +**Description**
 +    * This call operates just like <fs small>​[[#​req_peek|REQ_PEEK]]</​fs>,​ but the request (offset and size) are about the block device instead of any particular inode.
 +
 +**Notes**
 +
 +    * For filesystems using libminixfs, lmfs_do_bpeek() can implement this request for filesystems if desired.
 +
 +----
 +
 +===== Additional information =====
 +==== Implementing the lookup request ====
 +The following pseudocode presents one possible approach to implementing the heart of the <fs small>​[[#​req_lookup|REQ_LOOKUP]]</​fs>​ request:
 +
 +  * retrieve the path to resolve [<fs small>​ENAMETOOLONG</​fs>​]
 +  * take the given start inode as current inode
 +  * while the remaining part of the path is not empty,
 +    * skip over zero or more '/'​ characters in the path
 +    * if remaining path is empty, use "​."​ as component
 +    * else, get the next '/'​-delimited component [<fs small>​ENAMETOOLONG</​fs>​]
 +    * if the current inode is a mountpoint,
 +      * if the component is not "​..":​ [<fs small>​EINVAL</​fs>​]
 +    * else,
 +      * if the current inode is not a directory: [<fs small>​ENOTDIR</​fs>​]
 +      * if the caller has no search access permissions on the current inode: [<fs small>​EACCES</​fs>​]
 +    * if the component is "​.",​ or the component is "​.."​ and the current directory is the given root inode,
 +      * continue
 +    * else, if the component is "​..",​
 +      * if the current inode is the file system root directory: [<fs small>​ELEAVEMOUNT</​fs>​]
 +      * set the current inode to the parent inode of the current inode
 +      * if the now current inode is a mountpoint: [<fs small>​EENTERMOUNT</​fs>​]
 +    * else, if the component identifies a symlink, and either the component is not the last in the path or <fs small>​PATH_RET_SYMLINK</​fs>​ is not set,
 +      * if the number of symlink resolutions increased by one exceeds <fs small>​SYMLOOP_MAX</​fs>:​ [<fs small>​ELOOP</​fs>​]
 +      * set the new path to the contents of the symlink plus the remaining part of the current path [<fs small>​ENAMETOOLONG</​fs>​]
 +      * if the now current path starts with a '/':​ [<fs small>​ESYMLINK</​fs>​]
 +    * else,
 +      * set the current inode to the inode identified by the component [<fs small>​ENOENT</​fs>​]
 +      * if the now current inode is a mountpoint: [<fs small>​EENTERMOUNT</​fs>​]
 +  * open the resulting inode [OK]
 +
 +For file servers that do not support symbolic links and/or mountpoints,​ the lookup can be simplified accordingly.
 +
 +If at least one symlink was resolved, and the returned error is <fs small>​EENTERMOUNT</​fs>,​ <fs small>​ELEAVEMOUNT</​fs>​ or <fs small>​ESYMLINK</​fs>,​ then the unresolved part of the new path must be copied back to VFS.
 +
 +Regardless,
 +
 +  * In the case of <fs small>​ELEAVEMOUNT</​fs>,​ the returned offset must point to the start of the "​.."​ component used in that loop iteration.
 +  * In the case of <fs small>​EENTERMOUNT</​fs>,​ the returned offset must point to the first character after the component that resolved to a mountpoint.
 +  * In the case of <fs small>​ESYMLINK</​fs>,​ the returned offset is typically zero.
 +
 +===== References =====
 +
 +This document is //not// based on the original VFS-FS protocol documentation by Balazs Gerofi. However, that document may still provide additional insights.
 +
 +<fs small>​[[http://​www.minix3.org/​doc/​gerofi_thesis.pdf|Design and implementation of the MINIX Virtual File system]] by Balazs Gerofi, August, 2006</​fs>​
  
developersguide/vfsfsprotocol.txt · Last modified: 2015/05/27 04:40 by lionelsambuc